The aim of this article is to create a concept for a research of election frauds which would be able to respond to the limits of the recent interpretation of this term. For achieving this goal it is necessary to accept the term election fraud which reduce the most of its possible limits. Then the new concept can be created. Hence, the research questions is: How will the concept reacting to this definition look like? This question is answered through the use of the instrumental case study of Russian elections to State duma which took place on the 4th December 2011. The quantitative content analysis is used here for the categorization of the official complaints about violations of electoral process submitted to the electoral commissions of the subjects of the Russian Federation.
Keywords: Electoral fraud, electoral integrity, conceptualization, Russia, State duma, elections
*Autor je studentem doktorského studijního programu Politologie na Fakultě sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Iva Procházková, Vít Hloušek:
This article is concerned with political issues in the Czech Republic whereas it emphasizes the European Union issue. Authors’ goal is to determine the salience of the European Union issue for all the relevant political parties (Czech Social Democrat Party, Christian and Democratic Union – Czechoslovak People’s Party, Communist Party of Bohemia and Moravia, Civic Democratic Party, Green Party, TOP 09 and Public Affairs). Theoretical part introduces political issues in general, mainly draws from the concepts of issue salience and issue ownership. The content analysis of party manifestos 2006 and 2010 is performed by using the code scheme of Comparative Manifesto Project research group. Afterwards it is discovered how much of the space is devoted to the European Union issue and how salient this issue is for all the relevant political parties.
Keywords: Issue salience, issue ownership, European Union, manifestos, content analysis, Comparative Manifesto Project, case study.
*Studentka katedry politologie Fakulty sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká repub- lika/Czech Republic.
**Vedoucí Mezinárodního politologického ústavu Fakulty sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Pavol Baboš, Darina Malová:
The 2012 parliamentary elections in Slovakia resulted in the single-party government. This is well in line with the fact that Slovak political parties have seemed to form two strong blocks for several years. This paper studies the voting behaviour of the Slovak voters in the 2012 parliamentary elections in regard to the two political blocks. Firstly we explore the voters’ movements across parties between the 2010 and 2012 elections. Secondly, our research asks which socio-economic and demographic characteristics drive the volatility across parties, both within the two blocks as well as between them. We use the exit-poll data and the logistic regression model to estimate the impact of different personal and contextual characteristics on voters‘ decision to change his voting preference. The findings show that Hungarian minority is more than four times more stable in their voting preference than Slovaks. As for parties, Smer-SD and SMK were the most successful in keeping their old voters. On the other hand, SDKU-DS and SaS lost the most of their respective voters. On the individual level the results show that the probability of changing a party preference within a block increases with age, education and the residence size. On the other hand, once young and less educated voters decide to change their party preference, they are more likely to vote for a party from the other block.
Keywords: Electoral Volatility, Voting Behaviour, Parliamentary Elections 2012, Slovakia.
*Katedra politológie, Filozofická fakulta, Univerzita Komenského v Bratislave, Gondova 2, 814 99 Bratislava, Slovensko/Slovakia.
The aim of the paper is to analyze the process of introducing the direct election of the President of the Czech Republic. For this purpose, it was chosen the method of an interpretative case study where the Renwick´s typology of reform processes introduced within his concept of the politics of electoral reform became the starting analytical framework. The main findings of this analysis are that the change of the method of electing the President of the Czech Republic was carried out by political elites, but who were in a certain interaction with the public, especially because of the results of public opinion polls. These surveys showed that the public supported the introduction of direct presidential election in the Czech Republic. These findings thus lead to the conclusion that the process of introducing direct presidential election in the Czech Republic had a form of passive mass impetus in the sense of Renwick´s typology.
Keywords: President, Czech Republic, direct presidential election, reform process, elite-mass interaction, passive mass impetus.
*Autor působí jako odborný asistent na Katedře politologie a humanitních studií Metropolitní univerzita Praha. Kontakt: Metropolitní univerzita Praha, Dubečská 600/10, 100 31, Praha 10, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
In the article we will be analyzing three misnomers associated with four electoral quotas: Q = V/S, Q = V/(S+1), Q = V/(S+2) and Q = V/(S+3) (V represents a total number of valid votes, S represents a total number of seats). The above mentioned quotas are traditionally associated with the names of Thomas Hare, Eduard Hagenbach-Bischoff and Pierre Imperiali. The aim of the article is to show that neither of the mentioned electoral quotas was invented by T. Hare, E. Hagenbach-Bischoff or P. Imperiali. In the article it will be shown that T. Hare actually promoted the use of the electoral quota formula Q = [V/S] and E. Hagenbach-Bischoff promoted the use of the formula Q = [V/(S+1)]+1 (the brackets [ ] denote the floor function, which rounds a real number down to the next integer). It will also be shown that P. Imperiali did not promote electoral quotas Q = V/(S+2) or Q = V/(S+3) or any other electoral quotas.
Keywords: Electoral quotas, Hare quota, Hagenbach-Bischoff quota, Imperiali quota.
*Inštitút politológie, Katedra Teórie politiky, Prešovská univerzita v Prešove, Ul. 17.novembra 1, 080 01 Prešov, Slovensko/Slovakia.
Jakub Hnát: Rakouské parlamentní volby 2013