Vliv generační výměny na pokles volební účasti v ČR mezi lety 1990 až 2010
The aim of the paper is to analyze the generational effects in voter turnout in the Czech Republic during the years 1990–2010; and to estimate the effect of generational replacement on turnout decline. Based on the assumptions of both the persistence and impressionable years’ models, this study examines six political generations associated with: the Second World War, building communism, the Prague Spring era, Normalization, post-Velvet Revolution transition and contemporary decline in political trust. This paper utilizes pooled cross-sectional post-election surveys from the Czech Republic from 1990 to 2010 and uses standard cohort analysis approaches: contingency tables, algebraic decomposition and logistic regression modeling. The effect of generations on turnout is moderate and statistically non-significant. The strength of these generational effects steadily decline as the analyses move forward in history toward considering the present generation. Overall, the effect of generational replacement on turnout decline in the Czech Republic has been weak and is estimated to have contributed two percentage points to the decline observed. Because of the declining participation of later cohorts, it is reasonable to expect that the effect of generational replacement will in the future continue to add to turnout decline.
Keywords: Turnout; political generations; cohort analysis; generational replacement.
* Sociologický ústav AV ČR, Jilská 1, 110 00 Praha 1, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Electoral Reform in Great Britain – Winners Do Not Change the Rules of th Game
The text deals with the possibility of electoral reform in the current UK at national level. It is based on the static theory of electoral reforms of Richard Katz, which is combined with the dynamic concept of “veto game”. It examines the attitudes of individual actors (government, parliament, citizens) and their influence in the process of electoral reform. It further describes the evolution of debates about electoral reform since the 80th years with an emphasis on attempt after the 2010 elections associated with the referendum in 2011.
Keywords: Great Britain, Electoral systems, Electoral reforms, FPTP.
* Ph.D. student at the Institute of Politicial Science, Faculty of Social Sciences, Charles University, U Kříže 8, 158 00 Praha 5, Czech Republic.
Diskuse nad povahou volebního podvodu a pokus o redefinici
The essay deals with the meaning of the term electoral fraud. Recent scholars use this term in different meanings and a spread of new more or less synonyms makes this research field chaotic and confusing. It appears highly desirable to put an order into this mix of terms to adequately define electoral fraud and its position in ongoing electoral integrity debate. It is necessary to observe the limits and imperfections of electoral frauds’ characteristics to understand the problems which affect its potential validity. The goal of this paper is to introduce the new definition of the electoral fraud which will be able to deal with the recent problems of existing definitions while reaching its maximal validity.
Keywords: Electoral fraud; electoral integrity; malpractice; systemic manipulation; definition.
* Ph.D. student at the Dept. of Political Science at the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Czech Republic.
Volební vzestup Hnutí pěti hvězdiček a stranická soutěž v Itálii (2011–2013)
The paper focuses on the interpretations of the electoral rise of the Italian Five Stars Movement and of its implications and consequences for the party competition in Italy, especially in the period from the May 2011 communal elections to the February 2013 parliamentary elections. The author argues that the most interesting and analytically relevant results have been so far produced by the studies emphasizing the transversality of the Five Stars Movement and the growth of its territorial pervasivennes.
Keywords: Elections; Five Stars Movement; Italy.
* Professor at the Dept. of Political Scince at the Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Putinovo Rusko volí: Ruské prezidentské voľby 2012
This article deals with the election of the President of Russia in 2012. It describes the political system of Russia and the electoral system in the presidential elections. Than the results of the elections and regional support of the candidates is commented, including criticism made by the international observatory missions.
Keywords: Russia; President; Putin; Elections; Political system.
* Masters Student at the Dept. of Political Science, Faculty of Social Studies, Masaryk University, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Obrat vpravo: Islandské parlamentní volby 2013
This article deals with the election to the Icelandic parliament (Althingi) held on the 27th April 2013. This election was interesting for several reasons. Firstly, the Independence Party, the most successful Icelandic party ever, achieved its second worst result since 1923. Secondly, the Progressive Party has seen a significant increase, the highest since 1979, which brought center-right parties an absolute majority of votes and secured them a majority of seats in the Althingi. Thirdly, elections resulted in a complete decline for the Icelandic left. Social Democratic Alliance, winner of the 2009 elections, has lost more than half of its voters (the largest single drop in the Icelandic electoral history), and similar loss recorded Left-Green Movement – social democrats coalition partner. The article describes electoral system, situation before the election and analyses election results. The results of the 2013 election are compared with the results of the 2009 parliamentary election.
Keywords: Iceland; Althingi; Parliamentary elections; Political parties; party system.
* Assistant Professor at the Department of Political Science and Philosophy, Philosophical Faculty, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University, České mládeže 8, 400 01 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic.
Michal Nový: Lukáš Linek (ed.): Voliči a volby 2010