Pavlína Bršťáková, Otto Eibl:
The paper deals with electoral support of ethnical parties in Romania in 2000, 2004 and 2008 elections. The aim of the paper is to confirm/falsify the C.-C. Alionescu’s view about lackes of the existence of reserved seats for minorities. Alionescu stated that parties of minorities obtain electoral vote by other voters than they declare to represent. Hence these parties can prefer their interests before the interests of their minority. The paper analyse the territories of electoral support and the index of electoral stability for confirmation of falsification of the Alionescu’s view. In the analysis it is evident that the minority parties are really supported by voters with different etnicity. Therefore the Alionescu’s conclusion could be confirmed.
Keywords: Romania, elections, ethnic parties
Reflexe voleb do Evropského parlamentu 2009
Eva Jogheeová, Vlastimil Havlík:
The 2009 European Parliament Elections in the Context of the Second-order Elections Theory. The first part of this study tries briefly to introduce the concept of second-order elections. The last chapter of this part offers selective outline of linking researches in this area. The aim of the second part of this text is to apply the concept of second- -order elections to the results of European Parliament elections in 2009 and to compare them with previous first- -order elections. The first chapter of the second part dealing with the voter turnout tries to prove the presumption that in second-order elections the turnout is lower than in first-order elections. The second chapter compares support for government parties in EP elections in 2009 with previous first-order elections. The third chapter through the index of effective number of parties verifies the presumption that in second-order election small parties do better.
Keywords: second-order elections, European Parliament elections, voter turnout, government parties, electoral cycle, small parties
Alexander Karvai, Peter Plenta:
The elections to the European Parliament are frequently labeled as second order after the parliamentary elections. The concept of second order elections is regarded as valid in the old member state of the European Union. The authors are testing this concept in the case of four new member states after the last elections to the European Parlia- ment in 2009—Slovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Slovenia. Four indicators have been tested in every case—electoral turnout, the results of the biggest government party, the proportion of results of the parties of the government and the opposition in the national and European elections, and the success of new, non-parliamentary, and radi- cal parties. The results of this analysis are indicating several contradictions with the original presumption of the concept of second order elections.
Keywords: European Parliamentary elections, second order elections, turnout
Kai-Friederike Oelbermann, Antonio Palomares, Friedrich Pukelsheim:
An account on the exact description on how votes are translated into seats during the 2009 European Parliament elections is presented. A complete list of weblinks to the national electoral provisions of the 27 Member States, and to the official election results is included. The electoral provisions are subject to principles common to all Member States laid down in the European Electoral Act as amended in 2002. We scrutinize conformance with regard to Articles 1–3, that is (1) the seat apportionment procedure (three different divisor methods, quota methods with ten different quotas and two different largest remainder variants, and single transferable vote systems with random and fractional transfer), (2) the concept of regional representation (establishment of constituencies, subdivisions into districts, and electoral alliances), and (3) electoral thresholds (relative to valid votes, relative to votes cast, and implicit thresholds). It turns out that Bulgaria and Lithuania impose thresholds higher than five percent of votes cast, and that the Italian provisions include self-contradictory clauses with respect to the regional subdivision.
Keywords: European Parliament, Elections 2009, Electoral System, European Electoral Act, Political Groups in the European Parliament
The aim of the article „Federal election 2010—national cleavages in political system of Belgium“ is to examine June 2010 federal election results in one of Benelux country. Belgian political system is traditionally consociational but increasing importance of national and linguistic cleavages makes political negotiations more complicated in recent decades. Particularly the judgement of Belgian Constitutional Court regarding the electoral law in Brussels—Halle—Vilvoorde electoral district represents existing disparities. The victory of New Flemish Alliance and success of political parties which struggle for greater regional autonomy confirmed the tendency to further federalization.
Keywords: Belgium, federal elections, Flemish region, Walloon region, Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde