The paper analyses and evaluates the influence of elections and electoral reforms on the process of democratization in Egypt. It interprets the transformation of authoritative regime of Hosni Mubarak in the last stage of its existence and recognizes crucial events in the modern Egyptian history that are related to the monopolization of power, through the control of elections and electoral arena. The period is characterized by the privatized democratic transformation and limited competition in the public space. The study tries to answer the questions what is the position of election in the cycle of legitimization of power and what are the patterns of electoral competition after 2011 revolutionary events. It suggests that the new elites and strong position of army in political arena deform the public space in a very similar way as Mubarak’s regime did.
Keywords: Egypt; election; democratization; Mubarak; Muslim Brotherhood.
The aim of this article is to deal with definition and conceptualization of electoral fraud. It answers the question: How to define electoral fraud? What forms does electoral fraud take in current world? How they might be classified? Answering these questions may lead to a deeper understanding of this phenomenon and to its conceptualization which might be useful for further research, especially for comparative research in this area. The article is divided in three parts. The first part focuses on the explanation of the term electoral fraud and other terms related to negative aspects of electoral process. Second part introduces selected concepts and classifications of electoral fraud. The third part suggests own conceptualization and categorization of electoral fraud.
Keywords: elections, electoral fraud, electoral manipulation, electoral malpractice.
Jan Kovář, Kamil Kovář:
According to the dominant framework, European Parliament (EP) elections are second-order elections, in essence national contests ‘by other means’. They are not about the personalities and parties at the European level, or the direction of the EU policy agenda; instead, they are fought over domestic rather than European issues and topics, and the political parties collude to keep the issue of Europe off the domestic agenda. This paper aims to analyse one aspect of the second-order election (SOE) model, namely the fact that national political issues and concerns dominate SOE campaigns. We focus on EP election campaigns as portrayed in the news media based on a premise that large proportion of election campaigns consists of media coverage. Based on a content and thematic analysis (N = 434), the article integrates the second-order election model with media behaviours. The results show that, indeed, national political themes and domestic geographic scope dominate the EP election campaign in the media. The findings and their implications are discussed in the light of relevant literature.
Keywords: European Parliament elections; second-order elections; media; campaign; Europeanisation.
The essay reflects upon recent trends in the inquiry into regional party competition in multi–level settings. It argues that there have been significant shifts in the research agenda. There is a growing consensus on a de–nationalisation of the approaches traditionally used in the party research as well as on a development of multiple points of reference in the study of regional party and electoral phenomena. However, the picture is a messy one, that of co–existence of variegated views and approaches in the context of persisting blind spots and of an underdevelopment of theory building. New discussions should be fostered in order to change this situation. The author suggests paying more attention to underestimated and/or overlooked issues such as those of conceiving of multi–level arrangements and of their spaces of electoral and party competition. It would be also useful to reassess the European (predominantly West European) research agenda with respect to approaches and analytical frameworks developed in other geopolitical contexts.
Keywords: Party competiton; regional elections; multi–level settings; research; theory building.
This article analyses party system of German Länder Schleswig-Holstein after 1989 in Caramani´s term of nationalization. It includes an overview of results of Länder elections between 1992 and 2009 and presentation of the main political parties and their results in each electoral disctrict. The level of nationalization of party system is discussed after this and the conclusions are checked by Jones and Mainwaring´s party nationalization score at the end.
Keywords: German Länder, Schleswig-Holstein, party system, nationalization, PNS
The goal of the article is to provide an analytical description of the Danish elections held on 15th September 2011. It will describe an electoral system mechanism, as well as the period between elections held in 2007 and 2011. There will be observed mainly intraparty changes and the general topics of the pre-electoral campaigns because these are suppose to have an influence on the electoral results. Then the complete electoral results will be described. The territorial redistribution of the support for the main political parties will be outlined in the end of the work with the focus on the constituencies with the biggest or unusual support.
Keywords: Denmark; elections; electoral system; Folketing; Venstre; Socialdemokraterne; Helle Thorning-Schmidt.
The fourth elections to the Scottish Parliament took place in May 2011. In a way, both the circumstance in which the elections took place and their results were exceptional. They ended the 4-year term of first ever Scottish minority government created in 2007 by the Scottish National Party, which for the first time assumed the position of a governmental party. Despite the AMS electoral system, the elections let to an absolute parliamentary majority of the incumbent party. This article provides and overview and analysis of the context, course and results of the 2011 Scottish elections.
Keywords: Scottish Parliament; Scottish Elections, Scottish National Party, Additional Member System.