číslo 2/2009

Studie

Martin Kreidl: 

Je volební chování v prvním kole senátních voleb ovlivněno vlastnostmi kandidátů?

Electoral base of the social democratic parties in former Czechoslovakia and their spatial changes

Author:
Martin Kreidl

Abstract:
Voting behavior in the elections to the higher chamber of the Czech parliament (the Senate) is a rather unexplored phenomenon. This probably results from a variety of substantive as well as methodological reasons. Yet, there are many unanswered theoretical questions and untested hypotheses pertaining precisely to this type of vote. Senate elections are highly personalized – there is one candidate nominated by each major party in a district, or there are independent candidates. However, we are rather uninformed if (and to what degree) candidate’s individual characteristics (age, gender, education and academic qualifications, place of residence) increase their odds of electoral success. I argue that many methodological obstacles in studying senate elections may be overcome by using a discrete-choice model (conditional logit model). I illustrate its application using data from a panel survey conducted before and after the first senate election in the post-socialist Czech Republic in 1996. The analysis reveals that some individual characteristics of candidates do indeed increase their odds of obtaining votes net of party effects. Furthermore, I document that this “ideal candidate profile” differs across socio-demographic groups.

Keywords: Voting Behavior, Senate Elections, Czech Republic, Conditional Logit Model

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VTomáš Kostelecký:

Regionální rozdíly ve volebních výsledcích v České republice - parlamentní volby 1996-2006

Regionální rozdíly ve volebních výsledcích v České republice – parlamentní volby 1996-2006

Author:
Tomáš Kostelecký

Abstract:
The article deals with voting patterns of major political parties in the parliamentary elections in the Czech Republic between 1996 and 2006. First, it provides an overview of existing scientific literature dealing with problem of spatial variability of voting results in the Czech Republic after 1989. Then it analyses spatial variability of electoral results and time-spice stability of voting patterns of major Czech political parties. The analyses prove that major Czech political parties have quite stable voting patterns. In the Czech context, the most of spatial variation in electoral preferences can be attributed to structural differences among districts. Key underlying factors explaining spatial variation of party electoral results are of socio-economic nature. Population in the prosperous districts tends to vote for the right-oriented parties while population in the districts with economic problems tends to support the left-oriented parties.

Keywords:

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Klára Vlachová: 

NStratifikace, zaměstnanecký sektor a volební chování

PStratifikace, zaměstnanecký sektor a volební chování

Author:
Klára Vlachová

Abstract:
The most common bases of stratification are wealth and income, social class, gender, ethnicity, and religion. In this article I present how social classes, income groups, men and women, and catholics and non-religious people voted in elections to the Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Parliament in 2006. My analyses are based on data file from the Czech Election Study 2006.

Keywords: Voting, Stratification, Social Class, Income, Gender, Religion, Employment Sector.

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Jakub Šedo:

Reforma volebního systému v ČR - 20 let dskusí

Proportionality of Representation and the Proposed Electoral Reform for the Czech Chamber of Deputies

Author:
Jakub Šedo

Abstract:
The paper is focused on the discussion about the electoral reform in Czechoslovakia and than in the Czech Republic, on the federal, respectively national level. There are identified the most important changes in the electoral law and discussions about them. Two phases in time Czechoslovakia (1990-1992) and two major phases of discussion about the electoral engineering in the time of the independent Czech Republic are identified and described, including the outcomes of these phases.

Keywords: Electoral Reform, Electoral Engineering, Czechoslovakia, Czech Republic, Proportional Representation.

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Články

Pavel Maškarinec:

Estonské komunální volby a jejich specifika a význam pro stranickou soutěž

Estonské komunální volby a jejich specifika a význam pro stranickou soutěž

Author:
Pavel Maškarinec

Abstract:
This article deals with an analysis of Estonian local election in the period 1992-2005. The study is focused on analysis of prevailing form of the competition, range of relevant actors on the local level, theirs fruitfulness in light of territorial support and overlap, which these factors can have for general shape of the Estonian party-political system, with specific position played by local representatives in election of the Estonian president.

Keywords: Elections, Local Elections, Quasi-list Proportional Representation System, Political Parties, Party System, Estonia.

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Eva Kneblová:

Změna volebního systému v Albánii v roce 2009 a její dopad na parlamentní volby

Změna volebního systému v Albánii v roce 2009 a její dopad na parlamentní volby

Author:
Eva Kneblová

Abstract:
This paper deals with the elections to the Assembly of the Republic of Albania held under changed electoral code on the 28th June 2009. These elections were widely seen as a key test in view of the country’s EU aspirations. The article describes the circumstances of genesis of new electoral system, the electoral system itself and the election results compared to those of the parliamentary elections in 2005. Partially, the attention is also paid to the differences in the territorial support for the main political parties.

Keywords: Elections in Albania, Electoral System, Electoral Reform, Electoral Code, Parliamentary Elections, Political Parties

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Pavel Maškarinec:

Parlamentní volby na Islandu v roce 2009: historické vítězství levice

Parlamentní volby na Islandu v roce 2009: historické vítězství levice

Author:
Pavel Maškarinec

Abstract:
This article deals with the election to the Icelandic parliament (Alting) held on the 25th April 2009. This election were interesting for four reasons. Firstly, the Independence Party, the most successful Icelandic party ever, achieved its worst results since 1923. Secondly, for the first time in history the two left-wing parties, the Social Democratic Alliance and the Left-Greens had obtained majority of votes and seats and set up majority government. Thirdly, the Liberal Party after ten years fell out of the parliament, and fourthly, new party – Civic Movement entered parliament and confirmed the shift of the Icelandic electorate to the left.

Keywords: Iceland, Alting, Elections, Political Parties, Party System.

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Recenze

StáhnoutZbyněk Klíč: Eibl, Otto, Havlík, Vlastimil, Kyloušek, Jakub a Pink, Michal. Krajské volby 2008