Jakub Kyloušek, Michal Pink:
The analysis focuses on distribution of electoral support of social democratic parties in both former Czechoslovakian countries. The main object of research is distribution of electoral support of Czech Social Democratic Party and SMER – Social Democracy in 2002 and 2006 Parliamentary election. The geographic stability of vote distribution is compared in 91 Czech counties and 79 Slovak counties. The changes of regional support are expected mainly in case of Slovakian SMER – Social Democracy. In the Period of 2002 and 2006 The Party shifted: as a non-ideological centre party at the beginning of party existence, SMER – Social democracy became the main left-wing party in Slovak politics.
Keywords: Central and Eastern Europe, Parliamentary election, Electoral geography, Czech social democratic party, SMER – social democrats.
Vlastimil Havlík, Libor Hoskovec:
The article aims to ascertain the level of regional elections importance for the electors of the Czech Republic. As the framework of the analysis, the authors chose Reif and Schmitt’s concept of second-order elections and their conclusions became the groundwork for setting the hypotheses that were later on verified by virtue of the election data and results of regional elections.
Keywords: Regional elections, concept of second-order elections, voter turnout, Czech Republic, political parties.
The article briefly summarizes the development of the discussion about the reform of the electoral system for the House of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. There are identified two periods. For the first period (1990s – beginning of the 21st century) the attempts to strengthen the position of the major parliamentary parties at the expense of the smaller parties were typical. It should lead to the more stable government with smaller number of the parties in the governing coalition. In the second period of the debate, which started after the 2006 elections, the most favored method for the stabilization of the governments was changed. The outcomes of the elections should be more proportional for the smaller parties, but the winning party should get some “bonus seats”.
Keywords: Electoral reforms, electoral engineering, Czech Republic, House of Deputies.
The article deals with the proposed electoral reform for the Czech Chamber of Deputies and its proportionality of political parties’ representation. At first, the contemporary electoral system is described and its main effects are mentioned. Then, three alternative proposals of electoral reform are introduced. In the last chapter, there is comparison of representation proportionality of the proposed electoral designs, based on simulations of election outcomes. The index of deformation is used.
Keywords: Electoral reform, proportionality of representation, Chamber of Deputies, Czech Republic.
The aim of this article is to analyse so-called Greek proposal of bill of electoral reform for electoral system to the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament of the Czech Republic and to show its weaknesses. The main problem of this proposal is, according to the author of this article, the bonus for the winner of electoral competition. By using the analysis of current electoral system the author tries to prove that the more important in the Czech political reality is the proportionality of electoral results than the bonus for winning political party. In the end, author presents his project to reform the current electoral system. These changes are likely to have minimal effect on the electoral behaviour of voters and political parties. This proposal modifies the number of electoral districts from current fourteen to nine (by means of combination of current small electoral districts), it also modifies the process of preferential voting (four preferential votes for each voter and variable threshold for being elected by means of preferential voting from four to five per cent, depending on electoral district magnitude) and aborts additive legal threshold for electoral coalitions. This project may produce more proportional results than the current electoral system, what should make the political system capable to establish strong governmental majority and relatively strong cabinet as a coalition of one large and two small political parties. Use of the d’Hondt divisor also offers slight bonus for winning party, what has been one of the aims of electoral reform for current Czech cabinet. As an useful proposal, which should be considered, the author also suggests modification of the number of deputies from two hundred to one hundred seventy-five.
Keywords: Electoral reform, PR, district magnitude, electoral formula, proportionality, political system, bonus seats, mixed-member system
The article analyses the Lithuanian parliamentary elections in October 2008. Detailed description of the mixed electoral system, brief outline of the main topics of the campaign and basic information about the major political parties are provided in the text. The election results are analyzed both separately for the single-member constituency and for the multi-member constituency, including a comparison with the results of the 2004 election and an outline of geographical distribution of support of major parties.
Keywords: Lithuania, Seimas, legislative elections, mixed electoral system