The article deals with a concept of strategic voting employed in the case of the elections to the Senate of the Parliament of the Czech Republic. The aim is to scrutinize whether a voter votes strategically in the two-round system in the Czech Republic. The area of study is analyzed through contradictory presuppositions of Garry Cox in Making Votes Count and Giovanni Sartori in Comparative Constitutional Engineering about a voters’ behavior in the first round of the two-round system. The results are that strategic voting is not observed. Hypothesis of Garry Cox about strategically acting voter was refuted by several employed tools. On the contrary hypothesis of Giovanni Sartori about elector voting in the first round of two-round system as freely as in proportional representation is in harmony with the results. Furthermore, on the one hand anti-system parties look to be underrepresented under the voting system in the Czech Republic, on the other hand they tend to gain more votes in the second from the two rounds as the results of the analysis of the related Sartori’s presuppositions.
Keywords: two-round system, strategic voting, Duvergerian equilibrium, SF ratio, Senate
* Autor je student na Fakultě sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Elections to the European Parliament represent a legitimate tool in the hands of citizens of European Union member states, which allows them to participate straight in shaping the political direction of the Community. However, this power is understood and used differently not only at national but also at the regional level. The goal of presented contribution is to offer a specific spatial view on results of the European elections held in Slovakia after accession to the European Union in 2004, while the main objective of the study is to comprehend the geographical aspects of achieved turnout and poll results of crucial political parties, which succeeded in these elections. However, a central aim of work is to present an analysis of geo-preferential movements of political parties between 2004 and 2009 just for this type of election, as well as to draw attention to their common strength and its spatial pattern on the basis of their affiliation to political factions of the European Parliament. Increased emphasis is put on inter-regional comparison of electoral support expressed by inhabitants of particular parts of Slovakia towards the most powerful political parties at the domestic political scene. A link between disaggregated electoral outcomes and the specifics of regional socio-economic situation creates a space for reflection on the causes of given geographic mosaic of election results in terms of the broader context of voter behaviour showed by inhabitants of the particular areas.
Keywords: elections to the European parliament, political parties, turnout, election results, regional level
* Martin Plešivčák is a research fellow at the Department of Human Geography and Demography, at Comenius University in Bratislava, Ilkovičova 6, Mlynská dolina, 842 15 Bratislava 4, Slovensko/Slovakia. He completed Erasmus exchange program at Queen Mary University of London and traineeship in European Parliament in Brussels. Field of his research interest covers political geography, with a special focus on electoral geography. He studies territorial paerns of electoral behaviour in national (Slovakia) and international (EU) context, causality between electoral choices and socio-economic stratification of territorial units, cleavage theory in regional perspective and socio-political urban-rural conflict line.
Marcela Voženílková, Jakub Šedo:
While more than 20 years of discussions of the electoral system reform for the first-order election in the Czech Republic, were focused on solving problems creating the national government, currently, it appears that electoral reform should deal primarily with dissatisfaction of citizens with the state of democracy (democratic culture) in the Czech Republic. Citizens and politicians believe that strengthening elements of personalization in electoral mechanism settings will lead to a greater focus on individual candidates and therefore politics, they represent establish a stronger relationship between the candidates (MPs) and voters and increasing personal accountability of those who are selected, a positive contribution to (re)building the Czech democracy. Four selected proposals of electoral reform of the first-order election in the Czech Republic are evaluating by using Shugart’s typology of personalization of electoral systems.
Keywords: electoral reform, unrealized electoral reform, personalization of electoral systems
* Studentka doktorského studijního programu na katedře politologie Fakulty sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
** Odborný asistent na katedře politologie Fakulty sociálních studií Masarykovy univerzity, Joštova 10, 602 00 Brno, Česká republika/Czech Republic.
Note: Text byl zpracován v rámci projektu specifického výzkumu Katedry politologie FSS MU “Aktuální problémy politologického výzkumu” (kód MUNI/A/1342/2014).
The goal of this article is to answer the question to what extent it is possible and meaningful to typologize municipal party systems in the Czech Republic and also the extent to which the Czech municipal systems differs from national party system, or from regional party systems. Using the quantitative analysis of statistical data, the author came to a results which are presented in conclusion of the article. Even though the result is foreseeable, this is the first time it has been achieved not by pure observation, but is based on the analysis of statistical data.
* Odborný asistent na Katedře ekonomie a veřejné správy, SVŠE Znojmo, Loucká 656/21, 669 02 Znojmo, Česká repub- lika/Czech Republic.
Keywords: Local politics; local party systems; typology of local party systems; political parties; independent candidates; local council, city council
The article analyzes Victor D’Hondt’s papers Système pratique et raisonné de représentation proportionnelle (1882) and Exposé du système pratique de représentation proportionnelle (1885), in which he described his widely famous method of apportionment. Analysis of the original works by D’Hondt highlights the process of redistribution of seats, as it was presented by D’Hondt. The article points out that a current political science literature interprets D’Hondt method as the highest averages method (or method of priority ranking), but D´Hondt himself considers his method to be a divisor method with rounding down. He was just looking for an appropriate divisor through the method of highest averages.
Keywords: D´Hondt method, Apportionment, Electoral divisor, Highest averages method
* Institute of Political Science, Prešov University in Prešov, Ul. 17. novembra 1, 080 01 Prešov, Slovakia.
Note:Text je čiastkovým výstupom riešenia grantovej úlohy KEGA č. 073UK–4/2013 Inovácia obsahu, metodiky vzdelávania a metód výskumu pre študijný program politológia na prvom a druhom stupni VŠ štúdia
Marcela Voženílková: P. Spáč: Tichý hlas voličov, preferenčné hlasovanie v slovenských parlamentných voľbách. Brno: CDK, 2013, 234 s.